Antoine-Jacques Roustan

Title page of Roustan’s first book on Christianity and Patriotism (1764) Antoine-Jacques Roustan (23 October 1734 – 15 June 1808) was a Swiss pastor and theologian, who engaged in an extensive correspondence with Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Unlike Rousseau, he believed that a Christian republic was practical – that the Christian religion was not incompatible with patriotism or republicanism.[1]Contents 1 Life 2 Correspondence with Rousseau 3 Footnotes 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] Roustan was born on 23 October 1734 in Geneva, the son of Jacques Roustan, a Protestant shoemaker and Marie Baile. He studied theology at Geneva, and was ordained a minister in 1759. In 1761 he married Jeanne-Françoise, daughter of Justus Saint-Andre, a barber. He was a schoolteacher and minister of St. Evangile in Geneva from 1761–1764, when he became pastor of the Swiss Church of London (1764–1791). In 1791 he became a “bourgeois” (gentleman) of Geneva, and in 1792 became a pastor in Geneva, and from 1797-1798 he was a headmaster. He was elected a Member of the National Assembly in 1793. Roustan and his friend the Rev. Jacob Vernes wrote a History of Geneva, which remained in manuscript form. He published several books on Christianity and Deism.[1] Correspondence with Rousseau[edit] Roustan exchanged many letters with Rousseau between 1757 and 1767.[1] In his first letter of March 1757 he compared Rousseau to Socrates.[fn 1][2] Rousseau praised him in return, but, although polite about the poetry he had sent, advised him against seeking a career as a man of letters. Roustan wrote to Rousseau after reading Julie, or the New Heloise (1761) saying that although he found the novel delightful, he was concerned that it was immoral in describing adulterous love so vividly and in describing hope as the only reason to believe in Christianity.[3] He visited Rousseau in Môtiers in 1762 and welcomed in him in London in 1766, but retained his views on the compatibility between Christianity and patriotism.[1] Four of his works — Défense du christianisme considéré du côté politique, wherein he refuted some of Rousseau’s arguments from On the Social Contract; Discours sur les moyens de réformer les mœurs; Examen des quatre beaux siècles de Voltaire; and Dialogue entre Brutus et César aux Champs Élysées — were collected and published in 1764 under the title Offrande aux autels et á la patrie.[4][5] The rebuttal in Défense du Christianisme ou. thanks wikipedia.

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La Grille

La Grille is a volcano in the Comoros is located in the Comoros archipelago on the island of Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja). La Grille is a shield volcano at the northern end of island and lacks a summit caldera like its larger and more well-known neighbor to the south, Karthala volcano. The basaltic La Grille volcano also contrasts with Karthala in its abundance of pyroclastic cones up to 800m in height.[1] The cones were erupted along fissures paralleling the summit ridge, which has an irregular profile and is elongated in a N-S direction, and from radial fissures that reach as far as the coast.[2] Recent lava flows, some perhaps as young as a few hundred years, have reached the sea from fissures on the lower western, northern, and eastern flanks. Geography[edit] La Grille is located on the island of Grande Comore, an island in the Comoros in the Comoros archipelago bounded by the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean. Occupying the northern island of Grande Comore, bound on the south by the Karthala, another volcano rising to 2361 meters. The road going around the island of Grande Comore via the coast sides the east, north and west of La Grille connecting the airport Prince Said Ibrahim to the west. Many villages are located near the coast and on the volcano where there are also electricity pylons. La Grille appears as a mountain range, elongated in a north-south, consisting of a stratovolcano cones covered slag height of 800 meters on average,[3] giving the volcano a maximum altitude of 1087 meters.[2] Unlike its neighbor Karthala, La Grille does not have caldera. Different eruptive vents are organized along the fissures that run the volcano from north to south, parallel to the ridge of the mountain, and other cracks along the coast winner. Of these eruptive vents, lava basalt escapes sometimes reaching the sea on the east, north and west sides of the volcano. Many lava flows are still visible as few are rapidly recolonized by tropical Coconut trees on the island. History[edit] Although the exact date of the last eruption of La Grille is unknown, it seems that the volcano is erupting there are only a few hundred years because of some lava flows covering its sides and still not recolonized by vegetation. References[edit]^ Global Volcanism Program, La Grille, image ^ a b Global Volcanism Program, La Grille ^ http://www.ais-asecna.org/en/atlas/comores/moroni.htm Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Ho. thanks wikipedia.

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1960 in art

List of years in art (table) .. 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 ..1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963.. 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 ..Art Archaeology Architecture Literature Music Philosophy Science +.. Contents 1 Events 2 Awards 3 Works 4 Births 5 Deaths 6 See also 7 ReferencesEvents[edit]August 10 – The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art opens at Inverleith House in the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.[1] December – The Huysman Gallery is founded in Los Angeles. Launch of Nouveau réalisme movement.[2] The Pace Gallery is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.Awards[edit]Archibald Prize: Judy Cassab – Stanislaus Rapotec Prix de Rome (for painting) – Pierre CarronWorks[edit] See also: Category:1960 sculpturesSalvador Dalí – The Ecumenical Council M. C. Escher – Ascending and Descending (lithograph) Barbara HepworthArchaeon Figure for Landscape (bronze) Edward Hopper – Second Story Sunlight M. F. Husain – The Prancing Horse Yves KleinAnthropometries of The Blue Epoch (performance art) A Leap Into The Void Alberto Korda – Guerrillero Heroico (photograph of Che Guevara) Morris LouisBeta Lambda Where Piero Manzoni – Corpo d’aria (artist’s multiple) Ivan Meštrović – Immigrant Mother (bronze) Ceri Richards – Cathedrale Engloutie Will Roberts – Woman with Cup of Tea Norman Rockwell – Triple Self-Portrait Jean Tinguely – Homage to New York (self-destroying sculpture) Andy Warhol – “Campbell’s Soup”Births[edit]March 13 – Joe Ranft, American magician, animation storyboard artist and voice actor (d. 2005) August 13 – Lorna Simpson, African American photographic and video artist December 22 – Jean-Michel Basquiat, American artist (d. 1988)Deaths[edit]January 12 – William Adams Delano, American architect (b. 1874) January 16 – Rudulph Evans, American sculptor (b. 1878) February 8 – Hakuyō Fuchikami, Japanese photographer (b. 1889) February 22 – Paul-Émile Borduas, Canadian painter (b. 1905) March 3 – Nina Veselova, Russian painter (b. 1922) March 18 – Alexander V. Kuprin, Russian painter (b. 1880) March 26 – Francisco Goitia, Mexican realist painter (b. 1882) April 13 – Eric Kennington, English sculptor and war artist (b. 1888) May 8 – Hugo Alfvén, Swedish musician and painter (b. 1872) May 16 – Igor Grabar, Russian painter, publisher, and art historian (b. 1871) May 27 – James Montgomery Flagg, American illustrator,. thanks wikipedia.

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Williams Range

Williams Range Dimensions Area 24 km2 (9.3 sq mi) Geography Country Canada Province British Columbia Parent range Kitimat Ranges The Williams Range is a small subrange of the Kitimat Ranges, located on the southwestern end of Denny Island, British Columbia, Canada. References[edit]”Williams Range”. BC Geographical Names.  Williams Range in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia v t eKitimat Ranges of British Columbia, Canada RangesBare Top Bell Burnaby Cape Chismore Countess of Dufferin Kitlope Murphy Richardson Spiller Tenaiko Williams Wimbledon MountainsAlastair Anchor Cone Balmoral Blane Bucey Carm Carthew Chapleau Chatsquot Clague Conroy Cooper Cordierite Crag Davidson Dodge Finley Hadden Hodgkinson Kadeen Kasiks Keays Kenney Leighton Madden Morin Morris Morrison Morton Neilson Recumbent Salvus Shroud Spokshute Steckel Suden William Brown CommunitiesList of communities in British Columbia ParksKitimat River Tweedsmuir South Tweedsmuir North Kleanza Creek Khutzeymateen Fiordland Kitlope Heritage Conservancy This article about a location on the Coast of British Columbia, Canada is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v t e. thanks wikipedia.

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Iron-Gate Square

Iron-Gate Square, with Lubomirski Palace, 18th century, by “Canaletto” Targ za Żelazną Bramą (Iron-Gate Square Marketplace), watercolor by Masłowski, 1884 Lubomirski Palace 1940 Lubomirski Palace, Iron-Gate Square, Ghetto wall, May 1941 Rickshaws, Iron-Gate Square, July 1944 Iron-Gate Square (Plac Żelaznej Bramy) is a large open space in the city center of Warsaw. The square took its name from a large iron gate that once secured the western boundary of the Saxon Garden. History[edit] In the 17th century, the area to the west of Warsaw’s Old Town was being parceled out and rapidly built up. It was there that the widow of Jan Wielopolski founded a small town (jurydyka) named Wielopole after her late husband. The town was centered on a small market place dubbed Targowica Wielopolska, “Wielopole Market Place.” Though the town was small and poor, it was probably designed by Tylman van Gameren, one of the most renowned architects of the age. The town bordered another small market town, Mirów. In the 18th century, the mighty Radziwiłł family built a palace there. The structure was later bought and expanded by the Lubomirski family, which gave their name to the palace. About the time the palace was built, the town began to prosper. Under King August II, the area was completely rebuilt. As August was obsessed with the idea of a “Saxon Axis,” he decided to demolish the poor wooden houses in the area and incorporate the market place into the city of Warsaw. The Lubomirski Palace was also to be demolished, as it was constructed some 30 degrees off the axis. However, the plan had to be called off due to financial difficulties and the eventual death of the monarch. Nevertheless, the area continued growing thanks to both the palace and the local market place. It was there that the first permanent coffee house in Warsaw was opened in 1759. It was also there, in the market place, that six large barracks of the Royal Horse Guard were built. The barracks were demolished by the Russians in the 19th century. In their place a new, smaller square was created. It inherited the name “Plac Mirowski,” after the village of Mirów that once stood there. Between 1899 and 1901, two large markets were built there. The entire area, excluding the two markets, was completely demolished by the Germans in the aftermath of the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. After the war, the Saxon Garden was delimited on the west, and the place of the former iron gate is now occup. thanks wikipedia.

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Hays (surname)

Hays is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:Alexander Hays (1819–1864), general in the Federal army during the American Civil War Anna Mae Hays (born 1920), first woman in the U.S. Army to be promoted to general Arthur Garfield Hays (1881–1954), attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union Brooks Hays (1898–1981), former United States Congressman from Arkansas Charles Melville Hays (1856–1912), American railroad executive who perished on the Titanic Dan Hays (born 1939), Canadian politician David Hays (born 1944), English-born Scottish cricketer Ethel Hays (1892–1989), American syndicated cartoonist George Price Hays (1892–1978), Lt. General, Commander of the 10th Mountain Division in the European Theater of Operations in World War II. George Washington Hays (1863–1927), former governor of the state of Arkansas Harry Hays (1909–1982), Canadian Senator Harry T. Hays (1820–1876), general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War John Coffee Hays (1817–1883), Texas Ranger and sheriff in the Old West Kathleen Hays, American economics reporter Kathryn Hays (born 1933), American actress Kevin Hays (born 1968), jazz pianist Lauren Hays, American actress Larry Hays, American college baseball coach Paul Hays, Reading Clerk for the U.S. House of Representatives Richard B. Hays, American college professor at Duke University Robert Hays (born 1947), American actor Samuel Hays (1783–1868), Pennsylvanian Democratic politician Samuel Lewis Hays (1794–1871), Virginian politician Todd Hays (born 1969), American Olympic bobsledder Wayne Hays (1911–1989), former United States Congressman from Ohio William B. Hays (1844–1912), Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Will H. Hays (1879–1954), American politician and Postmaster General William Shakespeare Hays (1837–1907), American poet and lyricist This page or section lists people with the surname Hays. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you to this page, you may wish to change that link by adding the person’s given name(s) to the link. thanks wikipedia.

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Dos Valires Tunnel

Dos Valires TunnelDos Valires TunnelOverview Location La Massana, Encamp, Andorra / Escaldes-Engordany, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra Coordinates 42°31′2.643″N 1°33′20.142″E / 42.51740083°N 1.55559500°E / 42.51740083; 1.55559500Coordinates: 42°31′2.643″N 1°33′20.142″E / 42.51740083°N 1.55559500°E / 42.51740083; 1.55559500 Route CG II / CG III Operation Work begun 2005 Opened 2012 Character Dual-tube Technical Length 2,922 m (9,587 ft) Number of lanes 4 Operating speed 80 km/h (50 mph) The Dos Valires Tunnel (Tunel de Dos Valires) is a major road tunnel in Andorra linking the two upper Andorran parishes of La Massana and Encamp. It is 2.922 kilometres (1.816 mi) long.[1] The tunnel connects Generals Roads 2 and 3 linking the Valira del Nord (North Valley) and the Valira d’Orient (East Valley).[1] It is the first stage of the northern bypass of Andorra la Vella/Escaldes-Engordany. History[edit] The construction of the tunnel was started in 2005 but was halted in 2009 after one of the viaducts at the La Massana entrance collapsed and killed 5 Portuguese construction workers.[2] The tunnel cost over €160 million to build and it is estimated that 2500 vehicles per day will use the tunnel.[3] References[edit] ^ a b “Two Valires Tunnel”. Euroconsult. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ “Andorra bridge collapse”. NCE. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ “Andorra Opens the €160m ‘Dos Valires Tunnel'”. Andorra Expat. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  This Andorra-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v t e This tunnel-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v t e. thanks wikipedia.

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The Bridle Track, New South Wales

In the mid 1800s Australia there were many foot worn trails that developed between towns and villages by walkers and horses. These trails and tracks were often referred to as the ‘bridle track’, the bridle referring to the horse livery and the track generally distinguished it from a road or carriageway.[1] The bridle track referred to here is unusual in that it is still known as the ‘Bridle Track’ largely because it has remained relatively unimproved and much on its original alignment for more than a century. Most other tracks have either been abandoned and overgrown or alternatively have become roads with distinct names. The Bridle Track is, at this time, a portion of the road that links the city of Bathurst, New South Wales with the village of Hill End. The track is the northern portion of this route, the remainder being conventional roads, both sealed and gravel on the southern, Bathurst end. The section known as the Bridle Track commences at the Winburndale Creek crossing and extends into the village of Hill End.Contents 1 History 2 Present Day 3 References 4 External ReferencesHistory[edit] From the early days of Hill End it appears that a narrow trail, only suitable for pedestrians and riders on horseback, wove a very windy and hilly trail along the steep cuttings and over the hills beside the Macquarie and Turon Rivers to the major town of Bathurst.[2] This trail along the Macquarie and Turon Rivers was quite likely first used in the 1850-60’s when Gold was first discovered in the Hill End locality. A newspaper reporters reference to a Bridle Track approaching Hill End from the south was written in 1865.[3] In 1871 it was recognized as a much shorter and quicker route to Hill End but the last six miles were impassable by other than by horse back riders.[4] In the early 1870s an accommodation house known as Foot’s was located about 18 miles from Bathurst, about half way along the journey and at the start of the Bridle Track section.[5] In 1872 the first of the improvements were made to the narrow track at Hawkins Hill, where the steep climb of the hill was replaced with a winding carriage track climbing around the hill. Miners had set up tents along the Rivers adjacent to the road and many Chinese with their vegetable plots could be seen along the track. At the foot of Hawkins Hill was the locality of Lower Turon and here an Inn known as Braggs Inn was located.[6] Nine miles south of Hill End was a mining locality on the Bridle Track called. thanks wikipedia.

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Tarazu

Tarazu Directed by Vimal Kumar Produced by Vinod Malhotra Written by S. Khan, Javed Starring Akshay Kumar Sonali Bendre Music by Rajesh RoshanRelease dates1 August 1997 Language Hindi Budget ₹340 million (US$5.1 million) Box office ₹450 million (US$6.7 million) Tarazu is an Indian action thriller film directed by Vimal Kumar and released in 1997. It stars Akshay Kumar, Sonali Bendre and Mohnish Bahl.Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Characters 3 Soundtrack 4 External linksSynopsis[edit] Police Inspector Ram Yadav (Akshay Kumar) is an honest, handsome, and incorruptible young man. He lives with his sister-in-law, Shakuntala (Shashi Sharma), and elder brother, Raj (Anil Dhawan). A lovely yet petty thief, Pooja (Sonali Bendre) admires Ram so much that she moves in to his house in the guise of a maid-servant, and eventually claims that she is to bear his child. Ram, unable to handle this, agrees to marry her. His duties and investigation lead him to suspect the influential Appa Rao (Amrish Puri). Appa Rao is enraged at Ram, and watches and waits for an opportunity to strike back at him. Janardan (Mohnish Behl), Appa Rao’s spoiled and wayward son, initially attempts to pick up a college girl. When she refuses and humiliates him publicly, he retaliates by setting her on fire in broad daylight, in front of several college students. No one is bold enough to stop Janardan, nor even attempt to save the girl. When Ram finds out, he immediately arrests Janardan and holds him in custody. This enrages Appa Rao even more, and he schemes against Ram, a plot so devilish that will turn Ram’s ordered life, his faith in the justice, and law of the country, upside down. Characters[edit]Akshay Kumar .. Inspector Ram Yadav Sonali Bendre .. Pooja Mohnish Bahl .. Janardan (Appa Rao’s son) Ranjeet .. Police Commissioner Kader Khan .. Khan Hindustani Amrish Puri .. Appa Rao Shashi Sharma .. ShakuntalaSoundtrack[edit] # Title Singer(s) 1 “Haseena Gori Gori” Udit Narayan, Alka Yagnik 2 “Ai Deewane Dil” Kumar Sanu, Alka Yagnik 3 “Premee Premee” Udit Narayan, Kavita Krishnamurthy 4 “Su Su Su Aa Gaya” Kumar Sanu 5 “Chal Ganne Ke Khet Mein” Ila Arun, Amrish Puri 6 “Mujhe Na Chup Rehna Hai” Kumar Sanu, Sadhana Sargam 7 “Nazar Na Hate Mere Yaar Se” Nusrat External links[edit]Tarazu at the Internet Movie DatabaseThis article about a Hindi film of the 1990s is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v t e. thanks wikipedia.

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Ajaccio AOC

Ajaccio AOCWine regionOfficial name Ajaccio AOC Type wine region Year established 1984 Country France Corsica Climate region mediterranean Soil conditions granitic Size of planted vineyards 220 hectares Grapes produced Primarily Sciacarello, Grenache, Cinsault, Carignan, Vermentino (primarily), Ugni Blanc Ajaccio is an Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for wine situated in Corsica, France as a part of the Corsica wine region. Ajaccio was earlier known as Coteaux d’Ajaccio and covers a vast stretch of land that looks down over the Mediterranean Sea. The wine-growing tradition in this area, one of the oldest traditions on the island, has grown up around carefully maintained estates and plots of land planted with Sciaccarello vines. Often seen as the jewel in the crown of Corsican grape varieties, Sciaccarellu grapes tend to give both red and rosé wines a distinctive flavour and elegance.[1] Coteaux d’Ajaccio was awarded VDQS status in 1971, became an AOC in 1976 as part of the larger Corse AOC, and became a separate AOC in 1984.Contents 1 Geographic Location1.1 Orography 1.2 Geology 1.3 Climate 2 Wine-growing Area2.1 Profile 2.2 Grape varieties 2.3 Terroir and wines 2.4 Marketing 3 See also 4 Notes and referencesGeographic Location[edit] Orography[edit] The wine growing area lies on sloping hillsides, rising up onto the highest slopes in Corsica. On average they are about 500 metres above sea level.[2] Geology[edit] The highest peaks on the island, which form part of mountain ranges rising up out of the sea, are more than 2,000 metres above sea level. The vineyards are planted on granitic soil that is particularly suited to wine-growing.[3] Climate[edit] The island, which enjoys 2,750 hours of sunshine per year, provides the vines with abundant heat in the summer, but this is rendered less extreme by the presence of sea and mountains. Frosts are uncommon and spring comes early in the year.[3] Wine-growing Area[edit] Profile[edit] The wine-growing area includes the communes of: Afa, Ajaccio, Alata, Albitreccia, Ambiegna, Appietto, Arbori, Arro, Bastelicaccia, Calcatoggio, Cannelle, Carbuccia, Cargèse, Casaglione, Casalabriva, Cauro, Coggia, Cognocoli-Monticchi, Coti-Chiavari, Cuttoli-Corticchiato, Eccica-Suarella, Grosseto-Prugna, Ocana, Peri, Piana, Pietrosella, Pila-Canale, Sant’Andréa-d’Orcino, Sari-d’Orcino, Sarrola-Carcopino, Serra-di-Ferro, Tavaco, Valle-di-Mezzana, Vero, Vico and Villanova.[2] Grape v. thanks wikipedia.

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